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Even if there are no complaints and visible cervix of the uterus seems unchanged, woman has to run cytological examination (Pap-test)regularly (once a year).
Smear is taken with pressure, so that cells layers are scraped off. This procedure is completely painless. Malignant processes usually start from lower layers of epithelium of cervix of the uterus and are progressing in the upper direction, to the surface. Therefore, if only upper layer gets to the smear, diagnosis can be clear only if the disease it on its last stage.
It represents examination of cervix of the uterus under the microscope. Special microscope which allows examining the appearance of cervix of the uterus is called colposcope, and the procedure – Colposcopy. Usually this microscope is used to determine whether there is erosion or not, or in order to detect suspicious malignant tumor.
Only extensive colposcopy can help to diagnose the disease in cervix of the uterus and define whether it’s malignant or not; if there was no colposcopy, diagnosis is not clear. Erosion represents unknown red spot, which can cover anything. Colposcopist does not use this word; he determines diagnosis by using common terms.
Biopsy represents taking part of a tissue for histological study. Histological study is the same procedure as cytology, but it examines whole tissue section in suspicious area. Histological study allows determining final diagnosis. Biopsy is carried out in the beginning of menstrual cycle, on 5-7th day of the cycle, right after stopping of menstruation. Biopsy is conducted only by the absence of an infection.
Cervical erosion – this term is often used by gynecologists, but it carries too little information in itself. Cervical erosion is a common name used to determine the red section on the cervix of the uterus visible by unaided eye by mirror examination.
Cervix of the uterus is a part of the uterus which starts in the vagina. This is the only part of female sexual system available for immediate examination. Nevertheless, particularly on this part the most frequent malignant tumor of female sexual system (except for mammary glands) has the tendency to develop - carcinoma of uterine cervix. Insufficient number of procedures used by detection of cervix of the uterus erosion is often the cause for this.
The cause of frequent disease of cervix of the uterus is connected with its anatomic location – it comes out to the vagina and by every infection inflammation transfers to it.
Inside of the cervix of the uterus there is a canal which connects it to the uterine cavity. The walls of this canal are made of so called columnar epithelium, which cells represent ideal location for most bacteria and viruses. Pathogens can remain inside of the cervix of the uterus canal even if infection is removed from the vagina. Cervical erosion from columnar epithelium supports inflammation, and antibiotics cannot provide sufficient treatment, it is strongly recommended to get rid of the nidus of infection itself.
During the sexual intercourse cervix of the uterus is deformed and the risk of infection increases. Most kinds of infections, whose pathogens affect cervix of the uterus, are transmitted by this way. Therefore, main preventive measure of inflammatory diseases, cervical erosion and carcinoma of uterine cervix is the use of condoms, even in case when other means of contraception are used (e.g. pills).
Several sexual partners increase the risk of development of cervix and uterus diseases, because it increases the pressure on immune system of the woman. Inflammations lead to transformations in cells properties and increase the velocity of their partition which can lead to the formation of a tumor – benign and then malignant. Viruses are also transmitted by this way – genital herpes and papilloma – it was proved that hey play big role in the development of carcinoma of uterine cervix.
There is a rumor that only older women get carcinoma of uterine cervix and only in the case, when someone of their relatives suffered from this disease. But where is the truth?
Carcinoma of uterine cervix is most frequent malignant tumor of female organs of generation, when not considering mammary glands.
Average age when women get carcinoma of uterine cervix is about 40 years old, but due to the regular gynecologist examinations the frequency of carcinoma of uterine cervix shows tendency to decrease (cervix of the uterus pathology is discovered earlier and treated properly), while young women in the age up to 35 over last 10 years show the tendency to increase of having this disease (because of the fright of treatment).
Following symptoms should alert you: any kinds of discharges, especially sanious discharges appearing after sexual intercourse. Remember the general principle of the medicine: only those diseases can be treated which are just in the beginning or do not exist yet. Consult your doctor even if you have no complaints. Do not wait for the symptoms.
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